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  4. 【英语语法】现在分词的用法

【英语语法】现在分词的用法

2012/12/21 3033 JJ
【英语语法】现在分词的用法,珠海IBS编辑和大家分享什么是现在分词和现在分词的用法,请阅读下文. 分词就是用动词的ting和ted形式,在句子中起形容词和副词的作用,可以充当表语、 补语、定语和状语等.由于其出现频率最高的作用就是作定语和状语.

英语语法现在分词的用法英语培训学校编辑和大家分享什么是现在分词和现在分词的用法,请阅读下文。

分词就是用动词的ting和ted形式,在句子中起形容词和副词的作用,可以充当表语、 补语、定语和状语等。由于其出现频率最高的作用就是作定语和状语。因此,分词可以作为逆化定语从句和状语从句的重要手段。


现在分词有哪几种?

现在分词通常具有主动意义,其可作的成分为:


1.现在分词-用作定语

A.用作前置定语(现在分词作前置定语时常表示正在发生的动作。)

例如:

That is a smiling face in the picture.

This is a sleeping boy.

That is a flying bird.

注:现在分词和动名词做定语的区别:

a swimming fish(一条游泳的鱼,表示正在发生的动作)

a swimming pool(一个游泳池,表示用途)

a sleeping boy(一个睡觉的男孩儿,表示正在发生的动作)

a sleeping car(一列卧车,表示用途)

B.用作后置定语(=定语从句的省略,重点!)

作后置定语时,有时相当于进行时态定语从句的省略,表示动作的进行;有时相当于一般时态定语从句的省略,表示事物的状态。

例如:

a car waiting outside = a car (which is ) waiting outside

the lady sitting next to me= the lady(who is ) sitting next to me

a few children reading in the room = a few children(who are ) reading in the room

a highway leading to the mountain top = a highway(which) leads to the mountain top

brothers sharing trouble and joy = brothers(who ) share trouble and joy

a house belonging to my sister = a house( which ) belongs to my sister


2.现在分词-用作表语(表示名词主语的性质特征,现在已被认可为形容词,通常可译为令人的。)

例如:

The film is very moving.(令人感动的)

The present situation is encouraging.(令人振奋的)

What he told us is greatly shocking.(令人震惊的)

注:现在分词和动名词做表语的区别:

The clown’s performance is amusing.(是现在分词或被理解为形容词:令人发笑的)

The only thing he did in bed was thinking.(是动名词,名词词性但仍为动词词义:思考)


3.现在分词-用作补语(宾补+主补)(常具有正在做之意)

例如:

I saw him rushing out of the room.(宾补)

Can you get the machine going again?(宾补)

I heard the girl singing an English song.(宾补)

He was noticed playing the piano in his room.(主补)


4.现在分词-用作状语(在多数情况下=状语从句的省略,重点!!!)

A. v-ing短语作状语时,可以表示时间、原因、伴随、方式、条件、结果等意义。

例如:

Seeing the teacher entering the classroom,the students stood up.(时间状语)

=(As soon as) they saw the teacher entering the classroom,the students stood up.

【译文】见到老师走进教室,学生们起立致意。


Being a teacher,you should be patient.(原因状语)

=(As) you are a teacher,you should be patient.

【译文】你是老师,应该有耐心。


Turning to the right,you will see the tower on the left.(条件状语)

=(If) you turn to the right,you will see the tower on the left.

【译文】向右转,你就会在你左边看到那座塔。


The children went away laughing and whistling .(伴随状语)

= The children went away,laughed and whistled.(类似于并列关系)

【译文】孩子们走了,有的笑着,有的吹着口哨。


I left home at seven, arriving at my destination in two hours.(结果状语

=I left home at seven and arrived at my destination in two hours.(类似于并列关系)

【译文】我七点钟离开家,两小时内到达了目的地。


B.v-ing短语的一般时常表示和谓语同时发生或几乎同时发生的动作,而v-ing的完成时常表示先于谓语动词发生的动作。

例如:

Having brushed his teeth,Mr. Brown came downstairs for breakfast.(表示两个动作的先后,作时间状语)

【译文】布朗先生刷完牙,走下楼来吃早餐。


Brushing his teeth,Mr. Brown came downstairs.(表示两个动作的同时发生,作伴随状语)

【译文】布朗先生一边刷牙一边下楼。


C.v-ing短语作状语,其逻辑主语和主句的主语通常是一致的。

试比较:

Playing in the garden,a snake bit me.

【译文】一条蛇在花园里玩耍的时候,把我给咬了。 


Playing in the garden,/ was bitten by a snake.

【译文】我在花园里玩耍的时候,被一条蛇咬了。


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