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  4. 【英语语法】定语从句语法

【英语语法】定语从句语法

2013/1/30 2143 JJ
【英语语法】定语从句语法,珠海IBS编辑和大家分享定语从句语法和不同情况下定语从句语法例句分析,请阅读下文. 1. Or so the thinking has gone since the early 1980s,when juries began holding more companies liable for their customers' misfortunes.

英语语法定语从句语法,珠海IBS编辑和大家分享定语从句语法和不同情况下定语从句语法例句分析,请阅读下文。

  1. Or so the thinking has gone since the early 1980s,when juries began holding more companies liable for their customers’ misfortunes.


【参考译文】这种思想大约从20世纪80年代初开始盛行,在那时,陪审团开始要求更多的公司对顾客的不幸承担责任。


【结构分析】此句中逗号前面是主句,逗号后面的when引导非限制性定语从句(when 相当于at that time),对the early 1980s进行补充说明(注意非限制性定语从句常可采用分译的方式翻译);在从句中的liable for是形容词短语作宾语more companies的补足语,即hold sb. liable for... 认为某人应对负责。


【知识链接】or so大约/大概;go的理解很灵活,可译为开始盛行hold认为(相当于 consider) ;be liable for...对......负责;customers,misfortunes 顾客的不幸。


2. Actually,it isn't,because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights, which is something the world does not have。


【参考译文】事实并非如此,因为它认为在人权方面有着共同的认识,然而这种共识根本不存在。


【结构分析】句子可以拆分为 :Actually,it isn't,// because it assumes that there is an agreed account (of human rights) , (which is something) (the world does not have).


句子主干结构是主从复合句S+V,because...,即第一段是主句,第二段是原因状语从句;原因状语 从句中的that引导名词性从句作assumes的宾语(即宾语从句);在宾语从句中,括号部分of human rights是account的后置定语,of此处之意是关于(相当于about);逗号后的which 引导非限制性定语从句也修饰先行词account,对其进行补充说明(同样,在翻译时采取分译策 略);something后面是又一个定语从句the world does not have,省略了关系代词that,修饰先行词 something。


【知识链接】isn’t后面省略的词应该是 so 或 true;assume 假设,认为;account 叙述;an agreed account一致的看法;human right 人权。


3. The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought,which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse language could be.


【参考译文】希腊人认为,语言结构与思维过程之间存在着某种联系。这一观点在人们 尚未认识语言的千差万别以前就早已在欧洲扎下了根。


【结构分析】句子可拆分如下:The Greeks assumed// that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought,(which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse language could be).


第二段中,that 引导名词性从句,作 assumed 的宾语(即宾语从句),表示观点内容,从句的主语是the structure of language,谓语是固定搭配 had some connection with,宾语是 the process of thought;在其后括号中,which 引导非限制性定语从句,此处必须意:which指代的是前面that从句的内容,而不是前面的某一名词;在括号中,画线的long before...是一个时间状语从句,修饰从句谓语took root。


【知识链接】 assume 认为,假设;have some connection with(相当于 have something to do with)和......有某种关系;the process of thought思维过程;take root in扎根于,根植于;long before早在......以前;diverse多样化的。


4. Creating a European identity,,that respects the different cultures and traditions which go to make up the connecting fabric of the Old Continent is no easy task and demands a strategic choice.


【参考译文】不同的文化和传统把古老的欧洲大陆编织成一个彼此相连的整体,但打造一个尊重这些不同文化和传统的欧洲名片绝非易事,需要人们做出战略性的选择。


【结构分析】句子可拆分为 :Creating a European identity(that respects the different cultures and traditions) (which go to make up the connecting fabric of the Old Continent) is no easy task and demands a strategic choice.句子主干是 Creating a European identity is.. . and demands... ;Creating...是动名词短语作主语,is和demands并列作其谓语动词;但主语 部分较长,由that引导的定语从句修饰先行词European identity不仅如此,在that引导的定语 从句中又由which引导了一个定语从句修饰先行词cultures and traditions。


【知识链接】European identity欧洲身份,欧洲品牌,欧洲名片;make up组成;fabric构造物,织物;the connecting fabric 彼此相连的整体;the Old Continent 古老大陆;a strategic choice战略性的选择。


5. There are newsletters,such as Tightwad Gazette,that give hundreds of thousands Americans useful tips on anything from recycling cling-film to making their own soap.


【参考译文】还有像Tightwad Gazette这样的简讯,它们给数十万美国人提供了许许多多有用的小窍门,从保鲜膜回收利用到自制肥皂,一应俱全。


【结构分析】 There are also newsletters,such as Tightwad Gazette,//that give hundreds of thousands Americans useful tips (on anything) (from recycling cling-film to making their own soap).此句的第一段是句子主干,画线部分是插入语表示举例子;第二段是关系代词that 引导定语从句修饰先行词newsletters,因插入语之故,此句的定语从句和先行词发生了分隔


:此处并非非限制性定语从句);从句中的主语是关系代词that,谓语是give,宾语是 hundreds of thousands Americans(间接宾语)和 useful tips(直接宾语);on anything 是介词短 语作前面 tips 的后置定语,from recycling cling-film to making their own soap 则是介词短语 作其前面anything的后置定语。


【知识链接】newsletter简讯,通讯,新闻信札;hundreds of thousands数十万;tip小费, 小转门;recycle回收利用;cling-film保鲜膜;soap肥阜。


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