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  4. 【英语语法】同位语从句讲解

【英语语法】同位语从句讲解

2013/1/25 3533 JJ
【英语语法】同位语从句讲解,珠海IBS编辑和大家分享同位语从句讲解和不同情况下同位语从句的例句分析,请阅读下文. 1.Levi Coffin,a teacher raised in North Carolina,explained,"The Bible,in bidding us to feed the hungry and clothe the naked,said nothing .

英语语法同位语从句讲解,珠海IBS编辑和大家分享同位语从句讲解和不同情况下同位语从句的例句分析,请阅读下文。

1.Levi Coffin,a teacher raised in North Carolina,explained,The Bible,in bidding us to feed the hungry and clothe the naked,said nothing about color.


【参考译文】作为一名从小在北卡长大的教师,Levi Coffin解释说圣经在要求我们给那些食不果腹者提供食物、给那些衣不蔽体者提供衣物的同时,只字未提肤色问题。


【结构分析】双逗号中间的a teacher (raised in North Carolina),是主语 Levin Coffin 的同位语,(raised in North Carolina)是a teacher的后置定语;双引号内容是explained的宾语从句,其中The Bible是主语,said nothing about作谓语部分,color是宾语,此处双逗号里的 in bidding ...是从句谓语动词said的时间状语。


【知识链接】raise抚养;North Carolina北卡罗莱纳(州名);bid命令,要求;feed喂,养, 提供食物;clothe提供衣物;say nothing about只字未提;the hungry饥饿者;the naked裸露 者,衣不蔽体者;in doing...在做……其间(或方面)。


2.In Europe,as elsewhere multi-media groups have been increasingly successful:groups which bring together television, radio, newspapers,magazines and publishing houses that work in relation to one another.


【参考译文】在欧洲,像在其他地方一样,传媒集团即那些将相关的电视、广播、报纸、杂志和出版社组合在一起的集团一直以来都非常成功,而且越来越好。


【结构分析】句子可以拆分如下:In Europe,as elsewhere// multi-media groups have been increasingly successful: //groups(which bring together television,radio,newspapers? magazines and publishing houses ) (that work in relation to one another).第一段中,In Europe是句子的地点状语;as elsewhere是句子的比较状语;第二段是句子的主干:multi-media groups是主语,have been是谓语,successful是表语;冒号后面的groups which...是主语groups的同位语,which引导的定语从句对groups进行内容解释。


注:此句的同位语较特殊,因其自身较长之故被后置(本应放在所修饰的主语后),并用冒号加以强调;在which引导 的定语从句里,that又引导定语从句对前面的五个并列先行词television,radio,newspapers, magazines and publishing houses 进行修饰说明。


【知识链接】 multi-media group 传媒集团;bring together 将...聚集/组合; publishing house 出版社;in relation to 与......相关联。


3. This alone demonstrates that the television business is not an easy world to survive in,a fact underlined by statistics that show that out of eighty European television networks, no less than 50% took a loss in 1989.


【参考译文】这一点就足以证明,要在电视行业里生存下来并非易事。统计数字尤其说明了这一事实,在80个欧洲电视网中,1989年出现亏损的多达一半。


【结构分析】句子拆分如下 :This alone demonstrates //that the television business is not an easy world (to survive in),//a fact (underlined by statistics) (that show that out of dghty European television networks,no less than 50% took a loss in 1989).第二段的 that 引导名词性从句,作谓语动词demonstrates的宾语(即宾语从句),其中括号部分的不定式短 语to survive in是an easy world的后置定语;第三段是要强调的重点,a fact是前面that宾语从句的同位语,后面的underlined by statistics是过去分词短语作a fact的后置定语;在 statistics后面的that show...是定语从句,修饰先行词statistics;在此部分还要关注show后面的又一个that从句(画线部分),它是show的宾语从句,表示数据的内容;在此宾语从句中,斜体的 out of eighty European television networks 是范围状语,no less than 50% 是主语, took是谓语,a loss是宾语,in 1989是时间状语。


【知识链接】alone若置于所修饰名词后,常做定语,可译为单单,仅仅demonstrate 相当于show表明;television business电视行业;not an easy world to survive in 并非容易生存的行业;underline在下面画线,引申为强调a fact underlined by statistics 一个有数据可 证明的事实;out of eighty European television networks 在 80 个欧洲电视网中;no less than 多达/高达;take a loss亏损。


4. When that happens,it is not a mistake: it is mankind’s instinct for moral reasoning in action,an instinct that should be encouraged rather than laughed at.


【参考译文】当这种反应出现时,并不是什么错,这是人类用道德观念进行推理的本能 在起作用,这种本能应得到鼓励而不应遭到嘲弄。


【结构分析】句子可以拆分为 :When that happens,it is not a mistake: //it is mankind’s instinct (for moral reasoning) (in action),// an instinct (that should be encouraged rather than laughed at).第一^段是句子主干:when引导时间状语从句,表示主句it is not a mistake 的时间背景;第二段(冒号后)是对第一段内容的进一步解释,其中括号里的for moral reasoning和in action是instinct的两个后置定语;第三段中的an instinct是前面instinct的 同位语,其后面的that...是定语从句对其进一步修饰解释。


【知识链接】that (代词)联系上下文译为这种反应mankind人类;instinct本能; moral道德的;reasoning推理(因有-ing,所以reason此处是动词词义);in action (在)起作用; rather than 而不是。


5. Imagine the effect on a reasonably advanced technological society, one that still does not possess the bomb,of making it aware of the possibility,of supplying sufficient details to enable the thing to be constructed.


【参考译文】对于一个技术相当先进却没拥有此炸弹的国家而言,如果使其意识到这一可能,并向其提供足够的造弹细节,可以想象后果何其严重。


【结构分析】 句子可拆分为:Imagine the effect (on a reasonably advanced technological society),one (that still does not possess the bomb),(of making it aware of the possibility), (of supplying sufficient details to enable the thing to be constructed).


括号中的介词 on 短语 是effect的后置定语;one是其前面society的同位语,其后的that引导定语从句,修饰one,对其作进一步的解释;最后面的两个of短语是effect的两个后置定语,因较长被置于句末;此句 的正常语序是:Imagine the effect of...,of...,on...;另外需关注此句的整体句式是个祈使句,再如:


Imagine their dismay when they found a beautifully cooked wallet and notes turned to ash.当他们发现煮过的钱包面目全非、钞票已化成灰烬时,可以想象他们的沮丧程度。


【知识链接】the effect on对......的影响;reasonably合理地,相当地;advanced先进的,发达的;be aware of意识到;sufficient足够的;detail细节;sufficient足够的;enable使能够; construct建设,建造。


6. If the small hot spots look as expected, that will be a triumph for yet another scientific idea,a refinement of the Big Bang called the inflationary universe theory.


【参考译文】假如那些小热点看上去同预期的一致,那就意味着又一科学理论的胜利, 也就是经过完善的大爆炸论宇宙膨胀说。


【结构分析】句子可以拆分为:If the small hot spots look as expected,that will be a triumph for yet another scientific idea, // a refinement (of the Big Bang) (called the inflationary universe theory).句子主干结构是第一段:If引导的条件句+主句,其中look as expected是look as they are expected的省略,意思是看上去和预想的一样,as短语在本质 上是比较状语从句的省略;a refinement of the Big Bang 和前面的 yet another scientific idea 是同位语关系;过去分词短语called the inflationary universe theory作后置定语,修饰the Big Bang。


【知识链接】 hot spots 热点;triumph 胜利;yet another...又一个......;refinement 提炼,改进;bang 突然的巨响,爆炸;inflationary 膨胀的;universe 宇宙;the inflationary universe theory 宇 宙膨胀说(理论)。


7. They reached a merger agreement on the understanding//that both parties will be committed to expanding the market share of the company in Europe.


【参考译文】他们认为双方都应该致力于扩大公司在欧洲的市场份额,基于这一共识, 他们达成了合并的协议。


【结构分析】They reached a merger agreement on the understanding// that both parties will be committed to expanding the market share (of the company ) (in Europe).第一段是句子的主干:They 是主语,reached 是谓语,a merger agreement 是宾语,on the understanding 是 原因状语,表示reached的原因;第二段是that引导的同位语从句,解释understanding的内容,此从句中主语是both parties,谓语是will be committed to,宾语是动名词短语 expanding...,句末两个括号中的部分皆是the market share的后置定语。


【知识链接】 reach an agreement 达成一致;merger 合并,融合;on the understanding that...基于......的观点;party (一)方;be committed to 致力于;expand 扩张,扩大;the market share市场份额。


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