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  4. 【英语语法】部分倒装句用法

【英语语法】部分倒装句用法

2012/10/18 2997 JJ
【英语语法】部分倒装句用法,珠海IBS英语学校编辑和大家分享部分倒装句用法,请阅读下文. 1.部分倒装即只把谓语的一部分(如助动词、情态动词等)放到主语前,或把句子的强调成分提前.

英语语法部分倒装句用法,珠海IBS英语学校编辑和大家分享部分倒装句用法,请阅读下文。

1.部分倒装即只把谓语的一部分(如助动词、情态动词等)放到主语前,或把句子的强调成分提前。如:

______ right now,she would get there on Sunday.

A. Would she leave                 B. If she leave

C. Were she to leave               D. If she had left

【分析】结合选项,全句的意思是:“如果她立刻就走,她就能在星期天到达 那里”。答案是C。


2.以否定词开头的句子要求部分倒装。按英语习惯,当never,hardly,seldom, little,few,not until,not,no,no sooner,by no means,under no circumstances 等否 定词置于句首时,其后要用部分倒装。如:


Never did I see him again.后来我再也没见到过他了。


Little did I dream that the girl was my niece.

我做梦也没想到那女孩是我的侄女。


Seldom does he go out for dinner.他很少出去吃饭。


Hardly does she have time to listen to music.她几乎没时间听音乐。


No sooner had we reached the airport than the plane took off.

我们刚到机场,飞机就起飞了。


Not until we lose our health do we realize its value.

等到失去了健康,才明白它的价值。


No sooner had she agreed to marry him than she stalled to have terrible doubts.

她刚同意嫁给他她就开始产生可怕的疑虑。


Under no circumstances are children allowed in the bar.

在任何情况下也不能允许儿童进酒吧。


【注】下列句子中助动词提前的用法。如:

Not until yesterday did little John change his mind.

小约翰直到昨天才改变了主意。又如:


In no country_ Britain,it had been said,can one experience four seasons in the course of a single clay.

A. better than      B. more than      C. other than      D. rather than


【分析】本题是个倒装句,答案是C。no other than意思是正是、就是;而rather than的意思是宁愿......而不......、而不是。


3.当这种副词不在句首时,当然应该用正常语序。如:


There has never / seldom been so much protest against the Bomb.

从未/很少发生过这么强烈的反对原子弹的抗议活动。


He little realizes how important this meeting is.

他不甚明白这个会议的重要性。


4.有些含有否定意义的介词短语置于句首时,其后也要用倒装。如 In no case should you give up.你绝不能放弃。


On no condition should we tell her about it.

我们绝不能把此事告诉她。


On no accounts must this switch be touched.

这个开关是绝不能触摸的。


In [ Under] no circumstances will I lend money to him.

无论如何我也不会借钱给他。


Under no circumstances should you lend him any money.

你无论如何都不该把钱借给他。


No way will I go on working for that man.

我不再给那个人工作了。

_________________________________【典型习题】_________________________________


Only under special circumstances_______to take make - up tests.

A.axe freshmen permitted      C. permitted are freshmen

B.freshmen are permitted      D. are permitted freshmen


【分析】全句的意思是:一年級学生只有在特殊的情况下才可以允许补考。本陈述句以only开始,后面接状语,应当用邵分倒装句。所以答案是A. are freshmen permitted。如用自然语序,本题的句子就应该改写为:Freshmen are permitted to take make - up tests only under special circumstances.这两句话的差别 是,前者将only under special circumstances放到句首,表示对状语的强调。注意:在 部分倒装句中,只有助动词、情态动词或连系动词to be可以置于主语之前,其他部 分都要置于主语之后。


【注】

1.当only +状语位于句首时,其后习惯上要用部分倒装。其中,only后的状 语可以是副词、介词短语、从句等。如果含有从句时,只要求主句倒装。如:


Only in this way can we learn English.

只有这样才能学会英语。


Only then did I understand what she meant.

只有到那时我才明白她的意思。


Only by shouting was he able to make himself heard.

他只有叫喊才能让别人听到他。


Only after he had spoken out the word did he realize he had made a big mistake.

只有当他已经说出那个字后才意识到自己犯了个大错误。


2.如果上述否定副词出现在强调句型中的前半部分,不用倒装。如


It was not until he went abroad that he know the truth of the fact.

直到他出国以后才了解到事实真相。


3.如果hardly,scarcely 后面接的是 any, ever,at all 时,意义类似 almost no / not / never(几乎不、从不),则无须倒装。如:

Hardly any people having been invited went there.

几乎没有什么受到邀请的人去那里了。


4.由no matter how,however和how引导的状语从句要求部分倒装,因为形容 词或副词通常紧跟在这三个引导词后面,然后才是主语和谓语,形成形式上的部分 倒装句。如:


I know nothing about this river,neither how long,how wide nor how deep it is.

我一点也不了解这条河,不知道它有多长,多宽或多深。


5.由as引导的部分倒装句。


(1)当as作为比较意义时,即用于as + adj. / adv. + as结构中时,如果把第 一个as賓略掉,就形成邵分倒装句。如:


Cautious as the rest of her family ( was) , she didn,t seem willing to give an immediate reply to my question.

正如她家里人一样谨慎小心,她似乎不愿意立即回答我的问题。


She ran down the stairs,quick as a rabbit (ran).

她跑下楼去,跑得像兔子那么快!


(2)当as引导让步状语时,和although,though 一样,当用作尽管之义时,可以用于部分倒装句。as作虽然解,引导让步状语 时,必须将表语、状语或动词 原形提到as前面。此时,要注意两点:若提前的表语是没有形容词修饰的单数可 数名词,要省略不定冠词;若提前的是动词原形(多为不及物动词),与之连用的通 常是may,might,will,would等,且这些词都要保留在原来的位置上(主语后)。 though有时也可像as这样使作倒装。如:


Child as he is,he knows a lot。

虽然他是小孩,但却很懂事了。


Much as I like you,I couldn ’t live with you.

虽然我很喜欢你,但我不能和你一起生活。


Try as he might,he couldn ’t open the door.


虽然他试过几次,但仍不能把门打开。

如:______,there was no hope of her being able to sleep.

A. As she was exhausted              B. If she was exhausted

C. Exhausted though she was      D. Now that she was exhausted


【分析】答案是C。从属连词as,though可以用于让步状语从句中。这种从 句必须以形容词(或形容词化的分词)、名词或动词原形开头,主语必须位于从句 之后。D. Now that she was exhausted 里的引导词 Now that 表示既然If she was exhausted表示条件如果;A. As she was exhausted表示由于(因为使用的是正 语序),都与后面句子的意思不通顺。


补充说明:


①这类倒装的让步状语从句可用as,though来引导,但不能用although来引 导;但是,未倒装的让步状语从句则可用though,although来引导,而不能用as来引 导。也就是说,although引导让步状语从句时不能倒装,as引导让步状语从句时必 须倒装,而though引导让步状语从句时可以倒装也可以不倒装。如:

虽然很晚了,但我们还是继续工作。

【正】 Late as [though] it was,we still went on working.

【正】 Though [ Although] it was late,we still went on working.

【误】 Late although it was,we still went on working.

【误】 As it was late,we still went on working.


②上面提到的倒装结构有时也可用来表示原因,区别的办法主要看句子的内容:让步从句的内容大多数与主句在意义上相反,而原因从句则与主句之间有因果 关系。如:


Tired as he was,he sat up late studying last night.

昨晚他虽然很疲倦了,但还是学习到很晚才睡。(表让步)


Tired as he was,he went to bed early.

因为很累,所以他睡得很早。(表原因)


Young as he was,he was equal to the task.

他虽年轻,却能胜任这项工作。(表让步)


Young as he was,he was not equal to the task.

他因为年轻,所以不能胜任这项工作。(表原因)


③在美国英语中,人们通常用as…as引导让步状语从句;当 为了强调起见,也可以倒装;当as等于so时,意义是也,也是。 Cold as it was,we went out. = As cold as it was,we went out. 尽管天气冷,我们还是出去了。


Successful as he is,he is not proud. = As successful as he is. 

他虽成功了,但不骄傲。


Tired as he was,we decided not to disturb him.

因为他太累了,我们决定不打扰他。


She worked hard , so / as did her husband.

她工作很努力,她的丈夫工作也很努力。


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