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国际商务法律文献文体及语言特征 法律英语词汇、句子特点

2010/5/19 2847 ibs
国际商务法律文献文体及语言特征 法律英语词汇、句子特点。 1.常使用古体词语 法律英语经常使用古体词语及古体语法形式。这些古体词语 和古体语法形式的使用使法律文献更加正式。古体词主要是 here,there和where加上after,by,in,of,on,to,under,upon,with等词构成的词语。如:

 

 1.常使用古体词语

    法律英语经常使用古体词语及古体语法形式。这些古体词语 和古体语法形式的使用使法律文献更加正式。古体词主要是 here,there和where加上after,by,in,of,on,to,under,upon,with等词构成的词语。如:

hereafter:in this document and after this point此后,以后

    hereby:in this way or by this letter以此,以此方式,特此

    herein:in this document此中,于此,在此文件中

    hereof_-of this关于这个(在本文件中)

    hereto:to this至此(对于这个,于此)

    hereunder:under this heading or below this phrase在下面(在此标

题或在此短语下)

    herefrom:from this fact or statement由此

    hereinabove:above in this document,statement前文

    hereinbefore:before in this document,statement此文之前

   heretobefore:previously or earlier在此以前,到现在为止

    herewith:together with this letter or written material随此

    thereafter:after that此后

    thereby:by that按此

    therefor:for that因此

    therefrom:from that从那里

    therein:in that在其中

    thereinafter:afterwards listed in that document 此文后面

    thereinbefore:before mentioned in that document在此文以上部分

    thereinunder:mentioned under that heading在那标题以下

    thereof:of that在其中

    thereto:to that到那里

    theretobefore:before that time在那之前

    therewith:with that与那

    whereby:by which按,靠那个

    wherein:in which在那方面

    whereof:of which关于那个

    whereon:on which在那上面

    whereto:to which对于那个

    whereunder:under which在其下

    wherewith:with which以此方法

    例如:

This contract is made this 19th of June,2001 by WFX Corporation(hereinafter referred to as “Sellers”)who agrees to sell and SQ Corporation(hereinafter referred to as“Buyers”),who agreed to buy the following goods on the terms and conditions stated as below。

译文:

本合同由WFX公司(以下简称“卖方")与SQ公司(以下简称“买方”)于2~301年6月19日订立,双方同意按下述条件买卖下列货物。

Excusable Delay where the term is used in if,is Agreement shall.mean those cause8 of delay specifically identified in Article 7 hereof(Excusable Delay).

译文:

本协议中使用的“可谅解延迟’’一词系指由协议第七条“可谅解延迟"中所述原因引起的延迟。

    The parties hereto have caused this Agreement to be executed by their respective representatives On the date above written

译文:

本协议由签约双方的各自代表在上述订约日期签订。

This Contract shall come into force from the date of execution hereof by Llae Buyer and the Builder.

    译文:

    本合同自买方和建造方签署之日生效。

The undersigned hereby agrees that the new products whereto this trade name is more appropriate are made in China.

译文:

下述签署人同意在中国制造新产品,其品牌以此为合适。

in consideration of the mutual covenants and agreement herein contained,the parties agree as follows.

译文:

双方考虑到相互在此提出的契约和协议,同意如下条款。

    All disputes,controversies or differences out of or in relation to this

 agreement,or to the execution thereof shall be settled through friendly consultation.

译文:

凡由该协议引起的,或与该协议有关的,或在执行该协议中发生的一切争议或分歧,应通过友好协商解决。

When one Party removes and replaces any directors whom it has appointed,it shall give written notice to the other Parties,the former and newly appointed directors and the Joint Venture Company,and state the reasons therefor.

译文:

如一方要撤换或替换任何董事,应向其他方、原任董事、新任董事和合营公司发出书面通知,并说明其情由。

This contract is made in a spirit of friendly cooperation by and between Party A and Party B,whereby Party A shall invite Party B for service as a foreign staff on the reims and conditions stipulated as follows.

译文:

甲方和乙方本着友好合作的精神签订本合同,根据合同,甲方聘请乙方为外籍工作人员,合同条款如下。

2.同义词与相关词语并列

法律英语中经常出现同义词或相关词语并列,主要原因是为了使意思更加精确。如:

    terms and conditions    条件

    null and void    无效

    free and clear of   

    made and signed    由……签订

 able and willing    能够并愿意

 purchase and sell    购买和销售

agent or collector    代理或收款人

    cOVenants and agreements    契约和协议

    goods and chattels    货物与动产

    due and payable    到期应付的

    by and between    由……并在……之间

    and/or    和/或

    on and after    在……和在……之后

    例如:

This CONTRACT is made by and between the Buyers and the Sellers;whereby the Buyers agree to buy and the Sellem agree to sell the under-mentioned goods on the terms and conditions stated below.

译文:

兹经买卖双方同意,由买方购进、卖方售出下列货物,并按下列条款签订本合同。

The shipper shall be liable for all damage caused by such goods to the ship and/or cargo on board.

译文:

如果上述货物对船舶和/或船上其他货物造成任何损害,托运人应负全责。

Party A shall be unauthorized to accept any orders or to collect any accounts on and after Mav 28.

译文:

自5月28日起,甲方已无权接受订单或账单。

Whereas a proposal to effect with the Society an assurance on the life Insured named in the Schedule hereto has been duly made and signed as a basis of such asslxraace and...

译文:

事由——为保险公司承保人寿保险投保人(其姓名见本单附件)事,已有建议提出并经签署作为此类保险之基础;并……

In case of more than one loading port,and if one or more of the ports are closed by ice,the Captain or Owners to be at liberty either to load the part cargo at the open port and fir up elsewhere for their own account as under section(b)or to declare the Charter null—and void unless Charterers agree to load full cargo at the open port.

译文:

在装货港不止一个,并且其中一个或多个港口被冻结时,船长或船舶所有人可选择在通航港装载部分货物,并按(b)项规定为船舶所有人利益在其他港口装满货物,或在承租人不同意在通航港口装满货物时宣布合同无效。

3.多陈述句、长句

法律文献是规定签约各方的权利和义务的,而不是提出问题或进行商讨,所以,法律文献中都是陈述句且都是完整句。法律文献中多出现长句子,这些长句子一般是由定语从句、状语从句构成的复合句。例如:

Subject to special provisions explicitly provided for in this Agreement,if either party has been prevented from performing its obligations under the Agreement because of an event of force majeure such as earthquake,storm,flood,fire,other acts of nature,epidemic,War,riot,hostility,public disturbance,acts of public enemies,prohibition or acts by a government or public agency or labour disputes,or other unforeseeable eventsbeyond the control of the parties,andtheir occurrence is unpreventabe and unavoidable,the party so prevented shall notify the other party in writing within eight(8)days after the occurrence of such event of force majeure,act to mitigate damages,if possible,and within fifteen (15)days thereafter provide detailed information of the event,a certificate of evidence thereof issued by the relevant allthofities and a statement explaining the reason for its inabilitv to perform all or part of its obhgations under the Agreement.

译文:

双方受本合同明确规定的专门条款的约束,如果任何一方因不可抗力如地震、风暴、洪水、火灾或其他自然灾害、瘟疫、战争、暴乱、敌对行动、公共骚乱、公共敌人的行为、政府或公共机关的禁止或行为、劳资纠纷或其他双方无法控制、不可预见的事件,这些事件的发生为不可预防和避免,而无法履行本合同规定的义务时,受妨碍的一方如果可能的话,应在这类不可抗力事件发生后的八(8)天内书面通知另一方以减少损失,并应在十五(15)天内提供事件的详细情况和由有关部门签署的证明及一份解释不能履行其按本合同规定应履行的全部或部分义务的说明书。

法律英语的基本句型是:

If…,then…shall be…,

If…,then…shau do…

例如:

If either party is prevented from executing the contract by such causes of force majeure as typhoon,earthquake Or other events agreed upon by both parties,the time for the execution of the contract shall.be extended by a period to the effect of those causes.

 译文:

签约双方的任何一方,由于台风、地震和双方同意的不可抗力事件而影响合同的执行时,则延迟执行合同的期限应相当于事件所影响的时问。

The seller is not liable under subparagraph(a)to(d)of the preceding paragraph for any lack of conformity of the goods if at the time of the conclusion of the contract the buyer kne.w or could not have been unaware of such lack of conformity.

译文:

如果买方在订立合同时知道或不可能不知道货物与合同不符,卖方就无须按上一款(a)项至(d)项负有此种不符合同的责任。

4.多条件状语从句、定语从句等从句

 (1)条件状语从句

法律文献由于大多涉及对义务的规定和对权利的确认,于是经常出现条件句,引出一定的结论。常见的引出条件句的连接词语有if,in cafle(that),in the event(that),unless,provided that.,shotdd等等,通常位于旬首,构成倒装条件句。例如:

If any of the above-mentioned Clatrses is inconsistent with the following Additional Clause(s),the latter to be taken as authentic.

译文:

以上任何条款如与以下附加条款有抵触时,以以下附加条款为准。

In case the Sellers are liable for the disc-fepmicies and a clailil has been lodged by the Buyers within the time limit of inspection:and quality guarantee period as stipulated in clause 15 hcrender,the Sellem shall settle the claim in one Oi any combination of the following ways.

译文:

如果货物质量不符属卖方责任,买方在检验期和第15条规定的保质期内提出索赔,卖方将按下列一种或几种方法解决有关索赔。

Should either party be prevented from performing all or part of its obligations owing to force majeure,it Shau be relieved of all or part of its obligations.

译文

当事人因不可抗力事件不能履行合同的全部或者部分责任时,免除其全部或者部分责任。

In the event that such mediation fails to resolve the dispute withinthirty(30)days,the dispute shall be finally settled by arbitration.

译文:

若调解于三十(30)天内不能解决时,其争执应由仲裁作最后裁决。

除了以上条件从句连接词外,英语法律文献中还常用in caseof和in the event of等表示条件的介词短语。另外,还常常出现像unless otherwise agrccd in writing between the parties hereto(除双方另有书面协议外),unless otherwise stated herein(除本协议另有规定外)等条件句

Unless otherwise stipulated in the credit,banks will accept a document bearing a date of issuance prior to that of the credit,subject to such document being presented within the time limits set out in the credit.

译文:

除非信用证另有规定,银行将接受出单日期早于信用证开证日期的单据,但是,该单据须在信用证规定的时限内提交。

The Purchaser may at any time terminate the Contract by giving writthe notice to Supplier if…,provided that such temination will not prejudice or affect any...

译文:

如果……,买方随时可以书面通知供方终止合同,但终止不得损害或影响……

(2)定语从句

英语法律文献多长句子的另一个原因就是定语从句的经常使用。使用定语从句,是由法律语言的精确性所决定的。使用定语从句的目的在于使条款意义明确、清晰,以利于排除误解的可能性。例如:

A reply to an offer which purports to be an acceptance but contains additional or different terms which do not materially alter the terms of the offer constitutes an acceptance.

译文:

对发价表示接受但载有添加或不同条件的答复,如所载之添加或不同的条件在实质上并不更改该项发价之条件,乃构成接受。

All disputes,controversies,or d.ifferences which may arise between the parties hereto,out of or in relation to this agreement and which the Board of Directors fail to settle through consultation,shall finally be submitted to arbitration which shall.be conducted by the Foreign‘Trade Arbitration Commission of the CCPIT in accordance with the Provisional Rules of Procedures of Arbitration of the said commission.

译文:

有关本协议的一切争议或分歧,如董事会通过协商达不成协议,则提交中国国际贸易促进委员会之对外贸易仲裁委员会,根据该委员会之仲裁程序暂行规定进行裁决。

 (3)主语从句

常用It作形式主语的主语从句。常见的句型是:

    It is agreed that…、

    It is understood that

    It is agrccd and understood that...

    例如:

It is agrccd that a margin of 2 per cent shall be allowed for over or short count.

译文:

双方同意,允许的数量误差为正负2%。

It is hereby agrccd that Party.B shall have no obligation to pay for the costs of such training.

译文:

双方特此协议,乙方不负担此类培训费用。

 (4)其他状语从句

 其他状语从句也是构成国际商务英语法律文献长句的一个因素。例如:

Where the shipper hands over dangerous goods tO the carrier or anactual carroer,as the case.may be,the shipper must inform him of the dallgerous character of the goods and,if necessary,of the precautions to betaken.

译文:

当托运人将危险货物交给承运人或实际承运人时,托运人必须告知货物的危险性,必要时并告知应采取的预防措施。

5.大写单词字母

法律文献经常用大写字母,以达到强调、突出的目的。例如:

IN WITESS WHEREOF we the Secretary and two of the Committee of Management of the Society have hereunto attached our signatures.

译文:

为昭信守起见,管理会秘书一人及成员两人特此签字立据。

 

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