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  4. 英文句子种类:肯定句和否定句

英文句子种类:肯定句和否定句

2014/9/22 727 Mabel
含否定词的句子称为否定句(Negative Sentence),不含否定词的句子就称为肯定句(Affirmative Sentence)。


英文句子种类:肯定句和否定句


含否定词的句子称为否定句(Negative Sentence),不含否定词的句子就称为肯定句(Affirmative Sentence)。例如:


例:Mr. Walker is an Englishman.


(华克先生是英国人。——肯定句)


例:He is not an American.


(他不是美国人。——否定句)


简单地说,表达事物的“Yes”这一面的句子就是肯定句,“No”的一面的就叫做否定句。


传统的英语入门都是先学肯定句,然后再学肯定句的反面,亦就是否定句。否定句的表达方式基本上有下面的两种。


(1)使用副词否定词“not”,例如:


(a)be,have为主要动词:


例:I am not a good swimmer.


(我不是一个游泳的好手。)


例:He was not at home yesterday afternoon.


(昨天下午他不在家。)


例:I have not much money.


(我没有很多钱。)


例:He has not many friend here.


(在这里他没有很多朋友。)


解说“be/have +not”常缩短成一词,尤其是日常谈话更是如此。例如:


例:You aren't [a:nt] a friend of his, are you ?


(你不是他的朋友吧,是不是?)


例:He isn't [>!znt] my brother.


(他不是我的兄弟。)


例:I wasn't [>w&znt] there at that time.


(当时我没有在那儿。)


例:There weren't [w+:nt] many people at the party yesterday.


(昨天没有很多人参加宴会。)


“am +not”不是“amn't”,而是“aren't”或“ain't[eint]”,例如:


例:I ain't ready.


(我还没准备好。)


例:I am very nice to you, aren't I?


(我对你很不错,是不是?)


美国人用“ain't”很随便,应该是“are not,is not,have not,has not”的地方,他们也会“ain't”一下就带过去,宜注意。


下面例句是“have not,has not”的缩短形。


例:I haven't[>h$vnt] a headache.


(我没有头痛。)


例:He hasn't[>h$znt] come yet.


(他还没来。)


(b)be,have为助动词


例:You aren't going to go to her birthday party, are you?


(你不打算参加她的生日宴会,是不是?)


例:It isn't raining outside.


(外面没有在下雨。)


例:She wasn't asked to speak at the meeting.


(她没有被请求在会上讲话。)


例:I haven't done anything wrong to her.


(他没有做对不起她的事。)


例:He hasn't yet paid the money.


(他尚未付钱。)


be+ V -ing(进行时),be +P.P.(过去分词)(被动词态),have(has,had)+P.P.(完成时)等的“be,have(has,had)”皆为助动词。例1的“be going to …”在学校文法中也常被视为助动词。


(c)“助动词+V”时


动词带有助动词“will,shall,can,may,must,need,dare,ought to,used to,had better”等时,将“not”置于助动词与主要动词之间。例如:


例:I will not do it again.


I won't[wount] do it again.


(我不愿意再做这种事。)


例:The old man cannot find his way home.


(那个老人找不到回家的路。)


例:I couldn't sleep last night.


(昨夜我无法入睡。)


例:You ought not to swim in the river.


(你不应该在河里游泳。)


例:You had better not tell her everything.


(你最好不要样样事情都告诉她。)


注:“can”的否定形式是“cannot or can't”,不可写成“can not or cann't”。


(d)使用助动词“do”的否定句


一般动词的否定句通常使用助动词“do”,句式如下:


句型  do(does, did)+not + V(原形动词)


例:I don't know her very well.


(我并不很了解她。)


例:He doesn't like Chinese tea very much.


(他并不很喜欢中国茶。)


例:She didn't come to school this morning.


(今天早上她没有来上学。)


例:Don't believe him.


(不要相信他的话。)


注:“have”表达“有”以外的意义时,其否定句通常使用助动词“do”,例如:


例:Usually I don't have (=eat) breakfast on Sunday morning.


(通常星期天早上我不吃早餐。)


例:She doesn't have (=drink) coffee for breakfast.


(她不把咖啡充作早餐喝。)


例:We didn't have (=enjoy) a good time there yesterday.


(昨天我们在那里玩得不愉快。)


不过美式英语“have”作“有”的意义使用时也如一般动词使用助动词“do”,例如:


例:I don't have brothers.


(我没有兄弟。)


例:We didn't have time enough to finish the work.


(我们当时没有足够的时间完成那件工作。)


(2)使用“not”以外的否定词


“not”以外的否定词有:


(a)副词:never,seldom,hardly,little,neither,etc.


例:She never comes to school late.


(他上学从不迟到。)


例:She seldom comes to see me.


(她不常来看我。)


(b)形容词:no,few,little,etc.


例:I have no brothers.(=I don't have brothers.)


(我没有兄弟。)


例:He has few friends in Hong Kong.


(他在香港几乎没有朋友。)


(c)代词:nothing,nobody,none,etc.


例:I know nothing about computer.


(对于电脑我一窍不通。)


I found nobody about computer.


(在那栋房子里我没看到任何人。)


注:1.有些文法书认为“Not +V”为句子否定法,是否定句,而“no +n.或如nothing,etc.”为单词否定法,不宜称为否定句。例如:


例:He doesn't have brother.(否定句)


He has no brothers.(单词否定,但应视为肯定句,因为谓语动词是肯定。)


请注意下面两句的意义上的区别。


例:He doesn't have a breakfast.


He has not a breakfast.


(他不吃早餐。——否定句)


例:He has no breakfast.


(他没有早餐可吃。——单词否定,肯定句)


2.否定也可以借用前缀或后缀来表达,例如:


例:He is honest.


(他是诚实的。)


He is dishonest.(=He in not honest.)


(他不诚实。)


例:They have children.


(他们有小孩。)


They are childless.(=The don't have children.)


(他们没有小孩。)


Drilling Square


Ⅰ.请把下列各句改为否定句。


1.Amy is the best student in my class.


2.Jim has a lot of stamps.


3.John studies very hard this semester.


4.Bill broke the glass yesterday.


5.Did he write you a letter last week?


6.Open the window, Peter.


7.We had a walk after dinner yesterday.


Ⅱ.请把下列各句改为肯定句。


1.She doesn't have to go to school today.


2.My father doesn't go to his office by bus.


3.I didn't see him yesterday.


4.Mr. Smith won't teach us next year.


5.You need not do it today.


6.She cannot run very last.


7.She doesn't wash her clothes herself.


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