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  4. 【英语语法】宾语从句讲解

【英语语法】宾语从句讲解

2013/1/23 3604 JJ
【英语语法】宾语从句讲解,珠海IBS编辑和大家分享宾语从句讲解和不同情况下宾语从句的例句分析,请阅读下文. 1. Some philosophers argue that rights exist only within a social contract,as part of an exchange of duties and entitlements. 【参考译文】有些哲学家认为:权利只存在于.

英语语法宾语从句讲解,珠海IBS编辑和大家分享宾语从句讲解和不同情况下宾语从句的例句分析,请阅读下文。

1.Some philosophers argue that rights exist only within a social contract,as part of an exchange of duties and entitlements.


【参考译文】有些哲学家认为:权利只存在于社会契约中,是责任与权利交换双方中的一方。


【结构分析】句子可以拆分为 :Some philosophers argue(that rights exist only within a social contract,as part of an exchange of duties and entitlements). 


Some philosophers 是主语,argue是谓语动词,that引导名词性从句作宾语(即宾语从句);在that宾语从句中,主语是 rights,谓语是exist,介词短语only within...和as part of...分别是动词exist的范围状语和方式状语。


【知识链接】philosopher哲学家;argue主张、认为(在阅读中不要总机械的理解为争执/争议);contract 合同,契约;exchange 交换;entitlements 利益,权利(entitle 授权)。


2.The phrase“substance abuse”is often used instead of drug abuse to make clear that substances such as alcohol and tobacco can be just as harmfully misused as heroin and cocaine.


【参考译文】麻醉品滥用一词常用来代替毒品滥用,这是为了说明:像烟、酒这类物 质如果滥用的话,也会与海洛因和可卡因一样有害。


【结构分析】 The phrase substance abuse is often used (instead of drug abuse)(to make clear that substances (such as alcohol and tobacco) can be just as harmfully misused as heroin and cocaine).


此句中,主语是The phrase,之后的substance abuse是其同位语;谓语 是is used;后面接有instead of...和to make clear ...两个状语,其中的不定式目的状语to make clear后又承接了一个that引导的名词从句,作make clear的宾语(即宾语从句);


在此宾语从句里,括号部分such as...又作了 substances的后置定语,故宾语从句的主干可简写作: that substances...can be as harmfully misused as heroin and cocaine。此外,此句亦应关注 as...as比较结构的使用,第二个as引导比较状语从句,为避免重复,heroin and cocaine后省 略了 can be misused,理解时须加以留意。


【知识链接】substance物质,特殊类的物质;abuse(ab-偏离+ use使用)滥用,虐待; drug药品,毒品,麻醉药;alcohol酒精;tobacco烟草;misuse(mis-错误+ use使用)错用,滥用; heroin海洛因;cocaine可卡因;make clear that...弄清楚,确保。


3.It was necessary to recognize that these institutions which are based on the same premises,let us say the supernatural,must be considered together,our own among the rest.


【参考译文】必须认识到,这些建立在相同前提基础上的信仰风俗(比方说超自然的东西),必须放在一起加以考虑。我们自己的风俗和其他民族的风俗都在其中。


【结构分析】 It was necessary to recognize// that these institutions (which are based on the same premises),(let us say the supernatural),must be considered together,our own among the rest.


第一段是句子的主干,其中:it是形式主语,真正的主语是不定式to recognize...;而第二段中that引导的名词性从句是动词recognize的宾语(即宾语从句),在此从句里:these institutions 是主语,must be considered together 是谓语部分,our own among the rest是独立主格结构作伴随状语,括号中的which部分是定语从句修饰前面的institutions,第二个括号里内容是插入语。


【知识链接】recognize认出,承认;institution机构,信仰,制度;be based on基于,建立在......的基础上;premise前提;let us say比如说;supernatural超自然的;the rest剩余的(人 或物)。


4.The young couple was worried because neither of them was aware of where they had lost the necklace.


【参考译文】这对年轻夫妇很焦虑,因为他们两个都不知道把项链丢在哪了。


【结构分析】 The young couple was worried //because neither of them was aware of where they had lost the necklace.此句主干是第一段的主系表结构,第二段是because引导的 原因状语从句,在此从句中:neither of them是从句的主语,was aware of是谓语部分,画线部分是where引导的名词性从句作介词of的宾语(即宾语从句)。


【知识链接】 couple夫妇;be aware of意识到,知道;necklace项链。


5.The experts were now fully convinced that the animal was nothing but a puma,but where had it come from?


【参考译文】专家们现在完全相信那只动物就是美洲狮,但它究竟是从哪儿来的呢?


【结构分析】The experts were now fully convinced that the animal was nothing but a puma,//but where had it come from?


此句是but连接两个分句组成的并列句,第一个分句中:主语是The experts,谓语是were,表语是convinced,后面画线的that从句是名词性从句作形容词convinced的宾语,即形容词convinced的宾语从句。类似结构还有:be sure that.../be afraid that.../be confident thait...等。


【知识链接】be fully convinced that...完全相信;nothing but只是,就是;puma美洲狮。


6.More generally,the escape clauses could undermine the reforms by encouraging the suspicion that the new package will not deliver the changes that its supporters claim,but close analysis of what is inevitably a very complicated package might confirm the skeptics, fears.


【参考译文】更广泛来讲,例外条款会激起人们的怀疑,使他们认为新计划不会带来其支持者所宣称的改变。由此,例外条款会给改革带来破坏。但是,对于一项不可避免而又相当 复杂计划的仔细分析或许会证实怀疑者的疑虑。


【结构分析】 More generally,the escape clauses could undermine the reforms (by encouraging the suspicion) (that the new package will not deliver the changes) (that its supporters claim),//but close analysis (of what is inevitably a very complicated package) might confirm the skeptics fears.


整体来讲,此句是由并列连词but连接的一个并列句;前面的分句较复杂:主语是the escape clauses,谓语是could undermine,宾语是the reforms,括号 中by encouraging...是方式状语修饰动词undermine,表示其方式,而在此状语中,suspicion 后的that引导同位语从句对suspicion内容进行解释,而在此同位语从句里,changes后的that引 导定语从句修饰先行词changes;在第二段的并列分句中,主语是analysis,谓语是might confirm, 宾语是fears,但此处的括号部分应给予关注,


本质上是介词of+(what名词从句)构成的一个特殊的介词短语,作analysis的后置定语,所以此处的what从句在本质上是介词of的宾语从句。


【知识链接】generally总的,广泛地,普遍地;escape逃跑,例外(指合同条款时);clause (合同等的)条款;undermine暗中破坏;suspicion怀疑;package包裹,一揽子交易;deliver递 送,发表(演说等);claim声称;close(此处意为)仔细的;inevitably不口1避免地;complicated复杂的;confirm证实,批准;skeptic怀疑者,持怀疑态度的人。common共同的,共有的;policy 政策;Doha多哈(卡塔尔首都)。


7. A leader should show that he or she values the input of subordinates for example, by involving them in decisions about matters in which they have a direct stake.


【参考译文】一个领导者应该表现出他或她对下属参与的重视——例如,可以邀请他们参与对那些和他们有直接利害关系事务的决定。


【结构分析】 A leader should show (that he or she values the input of subordinates)— for example,by involving them in decisions (about matters) ( in which they have a direct stake).


此句的主语是leader,谓语是should show,括号中的that部分是show的宾语从句; for example是插人语,其后的by doing结构是谓语动词show的方式状语,在此部分中about matters 是 decisions 的后置定语,而 in which they have a direct stake 则是 matters 的定语从句。


【知识链接】value珍惜,珍视;input输入,投入,此处引申为参与subordinate下属, 下级;involveGn)使卷人,引申为使参与stake赌金,此处引申为利害关系。


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