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  4. 【英语语法】什么是部分倒装

【英语语法】什么是部分倒装

2013/1/19 2987 JJ
【英语语法】什么是部分倒装,珠海IBS编辑和大家分享什么是部分倒装和不同情况下部分倒装的例句,请阅读下文.

英语语法什么是部分倒装,珠海IBS编辑和大家分享什么是部分倒装和不同情况下部分倒装的例句,请阅读下文。

否定副词作状语置于句首


为了表示强调,经常将never等否定副词或by no means等杏定词组放在句首,此时句子 要求将系动词、助动词或情态动词放在主语之前,而谓语部分位置不变,这就是部分倒装。 常用的否定副词或词组有:

never         little               not until               in no sense          under no circumstances

seldom         nowhere             not in the least        in no way            under no condition

hardly         in vain             by no means             in no shape          no sooner...than...

scarcely       not often           on no account           in no case           Hardly / Scarcely...when...

rarely         not a bit          at no time               in no wise           not only...but(also)...


例如:

Never have I seen such a terrible performance.

【译文】我从未见过这么糟糕的演出。


Not until yesterday did little John change his mind.

【译文】直到昨天小约翰才改变主意。


At no time must this door be left unlocked.

【译文】此门必须锁好。


Hardly had he got out of the court when the reporters raised a lot of questions to him.

=No sooner had he got out of the court than the reporters raised a lot of questions to him

【译文】他一走出法庭,记者就向他提出了大量的问题。


only+状语置于句首

当only +状语或状语从句位于句首表示强调时,主句用部分倒装。


例如:

Only in this way is it possible to explain their actions.

【译文】只有以这种方式才能解释他们的行为。


Only after he had spoken out the word did he realize he had made a big mistake.

【译文】只有当他说出那个词时,他才意识到他犯了个大错误。


Only in recent years have people begun to realize that wild dogs,kept within bounds,often do more good than harm.

【译文】直到最近几年,人们才开始意识到那些被圈养起来的野狗,往往是利多害少。


比较状语从句中的倒装(重点)

由than或as引导的比较状语从句中,有时会将从句中的助动词、系动词或情态动词前置到较长的名词主语之前,以保持结构平衡,主语若为代词则无须倒装。


例如:

You speak English better than do most of your classmates.

【译文】你英语讲得比你大多数同学都好。


He looked forward,as did his secretary,to the completion of the building.

【译文】他和他的秘书都期盼着这座建筑的竣工。


Old books that have ceased to be service should no more be abandoned than should old friends who have ceased to give pleasure.

【译文】不再有价值的旧图书和不再给你带来欢乐的老朋友一样,不应该被抛弃。


虚拟条件从句的倒装


在正式英语中,如果表示虚拟条件的状语从句谓语动词中有should、had或were,可将此动词置于句首,省略条件引导词if。

例如:

Were it all true,it would still not excuse their actions. (= If it were all true,it would still not excuse their actions.)

【译文】即使一切都是真的,也不能原谅他们的行为。


Were they to cease advertising,prices would be significantly reduced. (= If they were to cease advertising,prices would be significantly reduced.)

【译文】如果他们不做广告,价格会大幅下降。


She would grieve at the changes were she alive today.

【译文】她现在还活着的话,看到这些变化会伤心的。


I would not have spoken ill of her had I known the truth.

【译文】我要是知道真相,就不会说她坏话了。


Had I accepted his advice at that time,I would have succeeded now.

【译文】如果我当时接受了他的建议,现在我早就成功了。


Should ministers decide to make an inquiry,we would welcome it. ( = If ministers should decide to make an inquiry,we would welcome it.)

【译文】如果部长们决定进行调查,我们双手赞成。


Should you change your plans,please let me know.

【译文】你要是更改计划,请通知我。


whether引导的让步状语从句的倒装(难点)

whether(. . . or)引导让步状语从句时,如果其谓语动词是系动词be,并且采用虚拟语气, 可将be置于句首并省略whether,采用倒装表示强调。


例如:

Catching a frog can be a difficult business,be you a human or a bird or a reptile.

【译文】抓住青蛙是一件闲难之事,无论你是人、是鸟,还是爬行动物。

【注释】 =Catching a frog can be a difficult business ? vuh el her you be a human or a bird or a reptile.此处从句的谓语动词形式不是are,而是虚拟语气形式be。


Be it bird,fish or beast,porpoises are intrigued with anything that is alive.

【译文】海豚对凡是活的东西都感兴趣,不管是鸟、是鱼,还是野兽。


结果状语从句的倒装

由so或such引导的结果状语从句,常可以改变句子正常语序来表示强调。 例如:

So absurd was his manner that everyone stared at him.

【译文】他举止如此无礼,每个人都盯着他看。


So quickly did she leave that we did not even realize she was gone.

【译文】她走得如此匆忙,我们都没有意识到她走了。


Such a selfish person is that man that he was dismissed from the company.

【译文】那个人很自私,被公司开除了。


Such is the power of suggestion that within a very few minutes she fell asleep 

【译文】暗示的力量很强,几分钟她就睡着了。


so/ neither/nor引起的倒装


例如:

John saw the accident and so did Mary.

John didn‘t see the accident and neither did Marry.

She wasn’t angry and nor was I.


转述动词的倒装

当转述动词位于直接引语后时,常常将主语置于转述动词之后,但主语是代词时,不能倒装。

例如:

"lt‘s time for you,but not for me,"replied Gary.

"Maybe we should collect our thoughts for a moment,"he commented .


某些成分的前置

有时为强调某些成分,需要将它前置以突出强调。

1.宾语前置(较常见)

例如:

The past one can know,but the future one can only feel.

【译文】人们能了解过去,但是只能感知未来。


What I am going to do next I don’t quite know.

【译文】我不太知道下一步该干什么。


How he escaped a broken leg I can’t imagine.

【译文】我无法想象他是如何没摔断腿的。


A horrible mess you’ve made of it.

【译文】瞧你把它弄得多乱。


How he managed to escape from the terrible accident I can’t imagine.

【译文】我无法想象他是怎么逃脱那可怕的事故的。


One of the copies he folded into an envelope and sent to the Commissioner

【译文】他把其中一份叠好放进信封,送到专员那去了。


2.其它成分的前置

例如:

Very dishonest he seemed.(表语前置)

【译文】他看上去非常不诚实。

To such motives,yet another must be added.(状语前置)

【译文】然而,除了这些目的以外,还得加上一个。


3.让步状语从句中的成分前置(重点!)


用as或though引导的让步状语从句,可以把作从句表语的形容词、名词、作状语的副词, 甚至作部分谓语的动词或动词词组置于从句之首,表示强调。


注:由于谓语动词始终位于主语之后,并未前置,前置的只是普通的成分,所以严格意义上 讲此现象不属于倒装。


例如:

Genius as she was,she was quite unassuming(谦逊).(名词前置)

【译文】她是个天才,但很谦虚。


Selfish as he is,he is the only person we can rely on.(形容词前置)

【译文】虽然他自私,但他却是我们唯一可以依赖的人。


Much as they admire her looks and her manners^they have no wish to marry her.(副词前置)

【译文】尽管他们很羡慕她的外貌和气质,但没有一个人想娶她。


Change your mind as you will,you will gain no additional support.(动词前置)

【译文】即使你改变主意,也不会得到更多的支持。


Stupid though it sounds,I was so in love with her that I believed her.(形容词前置)

【译文】虽然听上去很愚蠢,但我还是相信她,因为我爱她。


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