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  4. 【英语语法】什么是主谓一致

【英语语法】什么是主谓一致

2012/10/17 2383 JJ
什么是主谓一致?语法形式上要一致,即用作主语的名词中心词和谓语动词在单、复数形式上一致。 意义上要一致,即主语和谓语的一致关系取决于主语的单、复数意义。 就近原则,即谓语动词的单复形式取决于最靠近它的词语,

英语语法什么是主谓一致,珠海IBS英语学校编辑和大家分享什么是主谓一致,请阅读下文。

什么是主谓一致

主谓一致是一个语法范畴,从广义上讲,可以把一致性解释为两个语法成分之 间的关系,如果一种成分有某一种特征(如复数),则另一成分也必须具有这种特 征,即词语之间在人称、数、格、性等方面的一致。英语中,一致性最重要的类型是 主语和动词数的一致。通常遵循三个原则,即就近原则、语法形式一致原则和概念 一致(语言内容上一致)原则。


下面细说一下主谓一致三个原则!


一、就近原则

谓语动词的单、复数形式决定于最靠近它的词语(主要指名词)的单、复数形 式,这种一致关系所依据的原则就叫就近原则。

如:

1.名(代)词+ or +名(代)词”结构后的动词一般应与or后的名(代)词一 致。

如:

He or his brothers were to blame.

His brothers or he was to blame.


2.either...or结构后的动词应与or后的名(代)词一致。

如:

Either the shirts or the sweater is a good buy.

 Either the sweater or the shirts are a good buy.


3.neither...nor...结构后的动词应与nor后的名(代)词一致。

如:

Neither you nor your brother is in fault. Neither your brother nor you are in fault.

My friends and I would like to go to the conceit,but neither of us has got a ticket.


4.not only but also结构后的动詞应与also后的名(代)词一致。

如:

Not only the students but also their teacher is enjoying the film.


5.there be 句型也用就近原则。

如:

(1)There is a pen and two books on the table.

(2)There are two books and a pen on the table.


6.当句子的主语是one,并要在句子中多次出现时,一般用第三人称单数代词 来代替后面将出现的one或one当one在句子中泛指人时,在反意疑问句中也 可用you来代替。

如:

One should never blame his friends even his friends committed some careless mistakes.

当朋友犯了疏忽的小错时不要老指责朋友的过失。


One can,t be too careful,can you (one)?

一个人无论怎么样小心都不为过。


二、语法形式一致原则

主语和谓语动词之间的一致关系主要表现在数的形式上,即用作主语的名 词词组中心词和谓语动词在单、复数形式上的一致。如果名词中心词是复数,动词 就该用复数形式;如果名词中心词不是复数,而是单数名词或不可数名词,动词便 用单数形式。这种一致关系就叫语法一致原则。如:


1.由 as well as,with,along with,like,together with,rather than,except,but, including,accompanied by,plus,besides> in addition to,no less than 等弓丨起的结构 跟在主语后面,不能看做是并列主语,该主语不受这些词组引导的插入语的影响, 主语如是单数,其谓语动词仍然用单数形式。

如:

My mother,as well as my father has a key to the office.

我的妈妈和爸爸一样都有办公室的钥匙。


The reading course book,plus its reference books,is helpful to college students.

教材加上参考书对大学学生是非常有益的。


The man together with his wife and children sits on the sofa watching TV.

那个人和他妻儿老小坐在沙发上看电视。


2.有些代词只能指单数可数名词,当它们在句子中作主语时,尽管在意义上是 多数,谓语动词仍要用单数形式。


这类代词有either,neither,each,one,the other, another^ somebody,someone,something,anyone,anything,anybody,everyone,everything,everybody,no one,nothing,nobody 等。


如:

Neither likes the friends of the other.两人都不喜欢对方的朋友。

Everything around us is matter.我们周围的所有东西都是物质。


【注】在neither of与either of的结构里,一般语法书都认为谓语动词可用单 数形式也可用复数形式,但在美国的TOEFL考试内要求用单数形式。如:


Neither of them was in good health , but both worked very hard.

他们身体都不好,但两人工作都很努力。


Has either of them been seen recently?

最近见过他们吗?


3.当and连结的两个名词是指同一个人或同一件事,and后的名词前没有冠词,谓语动词应该用单数形式;在and后面的名词前有冠词,谓语就用复数 形式。

如:

The bread and butter is served for breakfast.早饭供应黄油面包。

The bread and the butter are on sale.正在出售黄油和面包。


4.当one of,a portion of,a series of,a species of,a chain of 结构作主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式。

如:

One of those students has passed the examination.

这些学生有一个考试及格了。


A series of pre - recorded tapes has been prepared for language laboratory use.

为语音课提前准备了一系列录音磁带。


5.由one and a half +复数名词或the majority of +名词作主语时,谓语动词视 名词的单复数形式而定。如:

One and a half apples are left on the plate.

盘子里只剩下一个半苹果了。


The majority of the damage is easy to repair.

大部分的损坏品都容易修理。 


6.a( one) +单数名词+ or two ”作主语,谓语动词用单数;但one or two +复 数名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数。

如:

A day or two has passed.

One or two clays have passed.


7.单数形式名词与动词的一致 


(1) and 所连接的两个名词前分别有:every,each,no,many a,more than one (或more than one +单数名词)等修饰时,谓语动词用第三人称单数形式。

如:

Every boy and every girl enjoys themselves in the school.

在学校,每一个男孩和女孩都玩得挺开心。

由many a +单数名词作主语,谓语动词要用单数形式。

如:

Many a boy learns to swim before he can read.

许多孩子在认字前就学会了游泳。

【注】 many a的意思是许多,more than one的意思是“不止一个,从意义上,它们表示复数,但用作主语时,谓语却习惯上用单数。

如:

More than one student has passed the examination.

不止一个学生通过了这次考试。


(2) and 连接的两个成对的名詞,如 fork and knife ; bread and butter ; soda and water ; coffee and water ;aim and end ;salt and water 等,虽有 and 连接,但仍表示单一的概念,谓语动词常用第三人称单数形式。如:


Where is your fork and knife?

你的刀叉在哪儿?

Is the bread and butter enough for you two?

这些面包和黄油够你们吃吗?


8.如果名词词组中心词是分数或百分数+ of +名词,谓语动词的单、复数形式取决于of后的名词或代词的单、复数形式。如:

Over three - quarters of the land has been reclaimed.

超过四分之三的土地已经被收回了。


Two - thirds of the people present are against the plan.

到场的三分之二的人都反对这个计划。


9.定语从句谓语动词的单复数形式应与先行词一致。

如:

He is one of the men who were chosen to represent the group.

他是被选出来代表该组的人员之一。


Keep cool is the first of the rules that are to be remembered in an accident.

镇静是事故发生时应当牢记的第一条原则。

【注】当one之前有the only等限定词修饰时,定语从句的谓语动词用单数形式。

如:

 He is the only one of those boys who is willing to take on another assignment.


三、概念一致(语言内容上一致)原则

主语和谓语动词的一致关系并非取决于语法上的单、复数形式,而是取决于主 语的单、复数意义:有时主语在语法形式上并非复数,但有复数意义,随后的动词便 用复数;反之,主语在语法形式上是复数,而在意义上可视为单数,随后的动词也用单数。这种情况就叫概念一致(语言内容上一致)原则。如:


1.有些集合名词如crowrl, family, team,orchestra (管弦乐队),group, government,committee,class,school,union,firm,staff,public,audience> board, company,crew,enemy,herd,jury,party等,它们作主语时,谓语动词的数要根据 语言内容而定。如果它们作为一个集体单位,动词用单数形式;如就其中的各个成 员来说,则谓语用复数形式。

如:

His family is going to move.他家准备搬走。

His family are very well.他家人身体都好。

Our class is made up of fifty students.我们班由五十个学生组成。

Our class are working very hard.我们班学习都很努力。

His team is very strong.他们队很强大。

His team are talking with the coach.他们队在跟教练谈话。


2.有些表示总体意义的名词,形式上是单数,而意义上却是复数,谓语动词要 用复数形式,如 people,police,militia,cattle,poultry(家禽)等。

如:

The police are searching for a tall dark man with a beard.

警察正在搜寻一位狀色黝黑、长胡子的高个子男人。


3.有些名詞形式上是复数,而意义上却是单数。如news,means,works,有许 多以 ics 结尾的学科名称,如 economics,physics,mechanics,politics,electronics(电 子学),mathematics,civics(公民学),ethics(伦理学),statistics(统计学)等,它们 作主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式。

如:

Politics is a complicated business.政治学是一门复杂的东西。

Here is the news.下面播送新闻。

【注】主语为外来的复数形式名词,谓语动词用单数。如datum(数据)的复 数形式data,curriculum(课程表)的复数形式curricula等。

如:

This data is very interesting.


4.- s结尾的某些表疾病的复数形式的名词,如measles(麻療),mumps(腿腺 炎)等,谓语动词用单数。

如:

Measles is a disease to take seriously.

Mumps is fairly rare in adults.


5.主语若是书名、剧名、报刊、杂志名称或国家、单位名称时,即使名词是复数形式,谓语动词也只能用第三人称单数形式。

如:

The Arabian Nights is very interesting.《一千零一夜》很有趣。

The New York Times is popular in America.

《纽约时报》在美国很受欢迎。


6.主语是clothes,compasses,goods,glasses,trousers,scissors^ shoes,socks, gloves等名词时,谓语动词用第三人称复数形式。

如:

The trousers are not expensive.这条裤子不贵。

Your socks are over there.你的抹子在那边。

比较:

(1)A pair of glasses is on the table.

(2)My glasses are on the table.


7.表示重量、度量、衡量、价值的复数名词作主语,谓语动词常用单数形式。

如:

Twenty miles is a long way to walk. 二十里地可是个不近的路程。

Three pints isn ’t enough to get me drunk.

三品脱还不至于把我灌醉。


8.the +形容词作主语时,如主语指的是一类人,谓语动词用复数形式;如果指 的是单个人或抽象概念,谓语动词用单数形式。如:

The poor were usually looked clown upon by the rich.

过去,穷人常被富人瞧不起。

The departed was a good friend of his.死者是他的一位好友。

【注】当名词前有其他量词修饰时,谓语动词的单复数形式通常取决于量词。

如:

Row upon row of soldiers is marching towards us on the field.

一排一排的士兵在田野里朝我们走来。

A body of volunteers has been organized to aid the helpless in their struggle for survival.

一个由志愿者组成的团队被组织起来去援助那些幸存下来而无助的人们。


9.当动词不定式、动名词、短语或句子作主语时,谓语动词用单数。如:

To see is to believe.眼见为实。

Seeing is believing.眼见为实。

What I did is all for you.我所做的一切都是为了你。

【注】在what引导的主语从句中,如果主语补语是复数时,谓语动词用复数 形式。

如:

What we have to learn are the pieces of language that produce inversion.


上文是关于什么是主谓一致及其用法,并系统的介绍了关于主谓一致三个原则!


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